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Heneral Luna [2015]


The Djinn®
Jul 18, 2021
𝖱𝖾𝖺𝖼𝗍 𝖲𝖼𝗈𝗋𝖾


Spain's 333 years of Philippines colonization ends in 1898. Unwilling to surrender to the Filipinos, Spain sells the archipelago for $20 million.

While the Americans prepare to claim their latest colony, the Filipinos argue amongst themselves, unaware of their country's fate under the Treaty of Paris.

December 1898. In Bulacan, particularly in the Barasoain Church that serves as their hideout, President of the First Philippine Republic, Emilio Aguinaldo, his Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini and his presidential cabinet are debating the issue of the American presence in the Philippines.

Filipino ilustrados Felipe Buencamino and Pedro Paterno argue for an alliance with the Americans as its protectorate. This angers the military leaders present in the cabinet meeting: General Antonio Luna and General José Alejandrino who want to continue the revolution for Philippine independence. They are wary of the presence of American forces in the country, believing another imperialist nation will simply replace the Spaniards. They are concerned about the latest American orders barring Filipino troops out of the walled city of Intramuros since the Battle of Manila in August. Intramuros is the seat of government and power base of the Spaniards in the archipelago.

Luna's military instinct senses something afoot. He asks the Cabinet to authorize a pre-emptive strike to take control of Intramuros while American forces yet to land their ground troops and while the Philippine Revolutionary Army still have the advantage.

Prime Minister Mabini specifically warns the cabinet of the 7,000 additional American reinforcement arriving to fight any insurgencies. The Generals want to strike now, reiterating their soldiers' willingness to sacrifice their lives for their country.

Aguinaldo is swayed by the elitist voices in the cabinet and leans towards continuing American peace and trade discussions and sends Buencamino and Paterno to meet with them. He assures his cabinet that the Americans promise to help win freedom from their Spanish overlords.

The truth was that months earlier on August 13, 1898, local Spanish and American generals secretly and jointly planned a land engagement, later known as the Battle of Manila",[12] to transfer control of Intramuros from the Spaniards to the Americans.

Following the surrender of the Spaniards, the Americans turn their attention to keeping General Aguinaldo's men out of Intramuros, an unusual order questioned by the Filipinos who provided support for the Americans. Filipino forces were not able to capture Manila, increasing anti-American sentiments and suspicions that the liberators are the next conquerors.

The peace talks come out empty-handed for the Filipinos. On December 10, 1898, Spain and the United States sign the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish–American War. Spain cedes authority of the Philippines to the United States. They turn over Intramuros to the Americans, while American troops begin to engage Filipino soldiers and seize control of Santa Mesa, San Juan, Paco and Pandacan, showing aggression against any Filipino resistance.

Luna and his trusted officers – General José Alejandrino, Colonel Francisco “Paco” Román, Captain Eduardo Rusca, Captain José Bernal and Major Manuel Bernal – embark on an arduous campaign against the invading American forces. During an intense battle against American troops led by General Arthur MacArthur Jr. and General Elwell Otis, Luna asks for reinforcements from the Kawit Battalion but its commander Captain Pedro Janolino refuses to comply because the order did not come from President Aguinaldo himself. Luna angrily rides to Janolino's camp, humiliates him in front his men, and dismisses the battalion for insubordination. Luna then assembles an army of 4,000 soldiers by declaring his infamous "Article One", stating that all who refuse to follow his orders shall be executed without the benefit of a trial in a military court. He also recruits Lieutenant García after witnessing his marksmanship skills, and makes him commander of his elite unit of snipers and sharpshooters.

As the new war drags on, Buencamino and Paterno indicate their support of a proposal for Philippine autonomy as a protectorate of the United States. Enraged, Luna orders their arrest as traitors to the constitution they swore to uphold. Aguinaldo reluctantly arrests them, especially as Prime Minister Mabini validates that Luna had grounds.

Luna's military campaign is undermined by General Tomás Mascardo, who opposes Luna's order for reinforcements, stating that he will only follow the President's direct orders. While the two generals are about to clash in Pampanga, the Americans advance steadily as other Filipino generals like Gregorio del Pilar retreat to the north. Luna visits Aguinaldo and Mabini to file his resignation, knowing that Buencamino and Paterno have been set free. Aguinaldo refuses to accept his resignation, and approves Luna's request to establish the Philippines Military headquarters in the north.

Later, Luna is summoned to the President's headquarters in Cabanatuan. Although his officers are suspicious of the telegram, Luna rides to Cabanatuan, bringing only Román and Rusca with him. Upon arrival, the streets are unusually empty, most of the soldiers had already left the president's headquarters under Aguinaldo's orders, with the exception of some elements of the Kawit Battalion and presidential guards. Luna discovers that Aguinaldo had already left that morning, and only Buencamino remains in the office. As they exchange heated words, a single shot is fired outside. Luna investigates and encounters Captain Janolino and his men, who attack him. Luna is shot, stabbed, and häçked repeatedly to death. Román is also killed while a wounded Rusca surrenders to the Kawit soldiers. Most of Luna's remaining loyal officers are arrested during the purge, while some are tortured and killed, including the Bernal brothers, Heneral Luna's closest aides.

As ordered by Aguinaldo, Luna and Román are buried with full military honors by the Kawit Battalion - the same men who killed them. Mabini, who is among the mourners, notices a bloodied machete on one of the soldiers. However, the inquest to Luna's assassination exonerates the Kawit Battalion and Luna's killers are never caught.

After the war, while American newspapers in the Philippines quickly blame Aguinaldo for Luna's death, Aguinaldo denies his involvement on the assassination; calling Luna as his most brilliant and most capable general. MacArthur and Otis acknowledge Luna was a worthy adversary, laughing at the fact that the Filipinos killed the only real general they had.

In the film's post-credits scene at the end, General Gregorio del Pilar prepares to cover President Aguinaldo's retreat to the north. Del Pilar inspects Luna's remaining men and orders his aide, Colonel Vicente Enríquez (Carlo Aquino) to select 60 of them.
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para sa lahat na bumibisita dito, eto po ay libreng panoorin lang dito pero d po to for downloading unless you are using IDM then yes you can otherwise. dahil lounge section to soooo nag initiate lang ako na ilagay to dito and i wasnt even sure kun tamang lugar to para ilagay to dito 😅.salamat po..
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